Jun 20, 2018

She says she was 5 when another Jehovah's Witness raped her. The religion's leaders call such accounts 'false stories'


David Gambacorta

Philadelphia Inquirer 

JUNE 20, 2018

Chessa Manion says she was raped by a 14-year-old Jehovah’s Witness. She is among a growing number of ex-Witnesses speaking out about abuse and cover-ups within the organization.

Stephen Lett is 69, bald, and round-faced, with eyes that sometimes spring open to dramatic effect while he’s talking — if you can manage to get an audience with him.

For much of the last two decades, Lett has been a member of the small governing body that runs Jehovah’s Witnesses and sets the course for the denomination’s followers at more than a dozen congregations in the Philadelphia area, and thousands more around the world. Lett and the seven other men on this committee maintain quiet profiles, their voices usually absent from media coverage about the Witnesses’ widespread child sex-abuse problems.
But in the spring of 2015, Lett unexpectedly starred in a 10-minute video that was posted on the Witnesses’ website, an appearance that coincided with a spate of stories about abuse allegations and cover-ups published by Reveal, from the Center for Investigative Reporting.

Dressed in a dark suit, he grew animated as he urged followers to stay united by “rejecting false stories.”

“As an example, think about the apostate-driven lies and dishonesties that Jehovah’s organization is permissive toward pedophiles,” Lett said. “I mean, that is ridiculous, isn’t it? If anyone takes action against someone who would threaten our young ones, and takes action to protect our young ones, it is Jehovah’s organization.”

With just a few sentences, Lett dismissed the criticism that has been levied against the Witnesses by authorities, victims and attorneys from Australia to Pennsylvania and the United Kingdom.


A Kentucky woman named Chessa Manion argues that her own experience shows that the opposite is true — that top Witnesses leaders know the organization’s child molestation issues run deep, yet refrain from addressing them. Many other victims have made this same claim, too.

But the 29-year-old ex-Witness — who recently appeared at a rally in Harrisburg calling for lawmakers to strengthen laws protecting child sex-abuse survivors — is a little different. She has a letter from Stephen Lett to back her up.

‘Tell Mommy what happened’

Manion’s story began in the early 1990s, when her family moved from the Chicago area to Havana, a small town of about 3,600 people near the Illinois River. Her parents, Tim and Lisa, were Witnesses with a special connection to the top of the organization: Tim said he’d been recruited by Lett when he was a young man and happened to buy a Chevrolet Corvair from Lett at an old barn lot nearby.


As Manion and his wife finished moving into their new house on a leafy block lined with Victorian homes, another family of Witnesses they knew well invited their then-5-year-old daughter, Chessa, to a sleepover at their house. They promised to bring her back the next morning for service at the Kingdom Hall.


“When they showed up at the meeting,” Chessa Manion said, “I ran to my mom and put my arms around her, and wouldn’t let go. I was just staring at her. She could tell something was wrong.”

Her mother questioned her over lunch. Had she gotten in trouble at the sleepover? Yelled at, maybe, by one of the adults?
No, Chessa told her — something had happened with the other family’s then-14-year-old son.
“Tell Mommy exactly what happened,” her mother said.
At her mom’s urging, Chessa used one of her stuffed animals to show what the teen did to her. Lisa Manion believed her daughter had been raped.


The Manions took their daughter to a doctor, who confirmed their fears. “We felt paralyzed,” Lisa said. He also warned them that he was required by law to report the incident to Illinois authorities. He gave them seven days to contact police on their own.
Chessa said her dad and the father of the teen who abused her met at a Kingdom Hall, along with the boy, who after several hours of questioning confessed. The next step seemed obvious: Tim Manion needed to go to the police.
But matters like this are more complicated than they first seem within the religion. The Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of New York, the Witnesses’ nonprofit corporation, warned elders in a 1989 memo, for example, to be careful about sharing confidential information that could serve as fodder for a lawsuit. Elders were instructed to never allow an officer to search a Kingdom Hall or any other area where secret records were stored. Those who received reports about child sex abuse were expected to simply contact the Watchtower’s legal department.
The religion also relied on a policy that required abuse victims to produce two eyewitnesses who could corroborate their claims before elders would consider taking action.


Lisa Manion, who is still a Witness, said some congregation members discouraged them from reporting the crime.


“There were friends of both families that felt if we would just make peace with this and each other that we wouldn’t have to go to the authorities,” she said in a recent interview. “However, we had brothers from Chicago telling us, ‘Jehovah will protect his own name. You do what you have to do to take care of your daughter.’ ”

Before the seven-day deadline, Tim Manion contacted the Mason County Sheriff’s Department and reported the attack. He was then referred to the county state’s attorney.


His daughter still doesn’t understand what happened next.

‘I was not comfortable’

Alan Tucker had prosecuted dozens of violent crimes as the Mason County State’s Attorney by the time Chessa Manion’s case reached his desk. But this one stuck with him over the ensuing decades.
Tucker, who is now an Illinois Circuit Court judge, said in a recent interview that a sheriff took a statement from the 14-year-old boy, who “admitted to having sexual intercourse with Ms. Manion. But the parents of each of the children downplayed the incident, trying to portray it as children being exploratory. They did not want to pursue charges.”


He puzzled over what he described as the Manions’ reluctance to see their daughter’s abuser prosecuted. “I know they were from a nontraditional religion,” he said. “I laid out the options as to how we could proceed and allowed them, for the most part, to direct me on how they wished to go.”

Lisa Manion disputed Tucker’s recollection. “We did not downplay anything,” she said. “We wanted to make sure that the word ‘rape’ was used as a description of what happened. … We only wanted to protect Chessa.”


She said they were advised by Tucker that their daughter might have to undergo additional examinations and testify in court against the teen. They worried the experience would traumatize her a second time. “He steered Tim out of pursuing a court case,” Lisa Manion said.


Instead of taking the case to court, Tucker said he arranged a no-contact agreement that prohibited the teen from interacting with Chessa or other small children. Both received counseling, but the teen was not required to complete a sex offender evaluation.


Had the case been successfully prosecuted, Tucker said, the teen could have ended up on probation until he was 21 and been registered as a sex offender.


Tucker said that he kept a copy of the case files in his personal records because he worried that the teen might reoffend. He dug out the files after being contacted by the Inquirer and Daily News.


“Since you called me,” he said, “it’s really bothered me.”
Manion said her parents faced pressure from Witnesses elders who urged them to “speak more delicately” and not use the word rape when discussing what she had experienced. Her father called the Watchtower’s headquarters in Brooklyn and described how she’d been abused at a sleepover, she recounted, only to be chided by an official who said, “Well, Brother Manion, do you see how you contributed to this?” (Her father did not respond to a request for comment.)
The fallout from the rape spread through the family like a disease. Shortly after her father reported the incident to police, he shared Chessa’s ordeal with her grandparents and aunts and uncles at a family gathering in the Ozarks in Missouri.


“It was a very bad night,” said Debbie Manion Ford, her aunt. “A horrible night.”
 JOSE F. MORENO / STAFF PHOTOGRAPHER

Chessa Manion hugs State Rep. Mark Rozzi (D., Berks) minutes after a rally calling for the elimination of Pennsylvania’s statutes of limitations in child sex abuse cases.

As the family absorbed the awful news, their horror turned to outrage. Chessa’s father was the only member of the family who was a Witness, and his relatives had long been skeptical of the organization.
“We were like, ‘How can you stay in this?’ ” Ford said. “Tim just said, ‘Well, the Witnesses are going to take care of this.’ But they tried to bury it.”

Not long afterward, Chessa Manion said, she found herself with her parents at the home of her abuser and his family. “I was made to hug him,” she said, “because the elders told our families that we needed to keep the peace.”


She paused to underscore the horror of the scene: “I hugged my rapist after he raped me.”
The experience took a terrible toll on the little girl, Ford said. “Chessa got really dark.”


The family tried to leave the trauma behind by moving to another congregation 1,400 miles away in Arizona.


“My parents received a lot of opposition, even though I was only 5,” Chessa said. “I was marked as ‘dirty.’ ”


She dropped out of school at 14 and became a pioneer, a Witness who spends more than 70 hours a month on missionary work. “I tried to be a good example and show that my dedication to Jehovah would not waver,” she said. “But I didn’t get any psychological counseling. My PTSD became very bad.”


As she grew older, Manion became disillusioned with the religion. She’d never gotten a GED because she’d been so influenced by Witnesses rhetoric about the end of the world being nearly at hand. She got married at 20, and when the relationship faltered, other Witnesses encouraged her to become more submissive.
Manion learned that her abuser, meanwhile, still attended services and was still around children. But he never faced criminal charges, a fact that gnawed at her.


“I had no closure or validation,” she said. “It was like the whole thing floated away.”


When told about Manion’s despair, Tucker, the judge, grew quiet. “I would feel the same way if I was her,” he said.

 ‘Wicked mistreatment’

In 2002, after Tim Manion saw a Dateline special about child abuse and Jehovah’s Witnesses, he contacted his old acquaintance Stephen Lett. Much had changed in the decades since they first met; Lett had ascended to the top of the Watchtower while Manion and his family were haunted by their memories of his daughter’s rape.
“It destroyed my brother and his wife and Chessa’s life,” Debbie Manion Ford said. “They could never get past it.”
In an anguished, five-page letter, Tim Manion told Lett about his daughter’s ordeal, and how their family was rejected by other Witnesses who had learned about it. “Most of the people we have told over the years have shunned us,” he wrote, according to a copy his daughter shared. “Some even thought and said openly to others that we must have done something to deserve this.”
Manion appealed to Lett to rethink the Witnesses’ approach to child sex-abuse allegations, including the two-witness rule. Elders were ill-equipped to handle crimes as serious as rape and sexual assault, he wrote. He argued that such matters be reported directly to law enforcement. “THIS IS NOT A RELIGIOUS SITUATION!” he wrote.
Governing body members like Lett rarely communicate directly with rank-and-file followers.
 JOSE F. MORENO / STAFF PHOTOGRAPHER

Chessa Manion on the steps of the Pennsylvania Capitol.

But on June 4, 2002, Lett wrote back. “While it was painful to read about the terrible ordeal that you and Lisa and Chessa had to go through,” he wrote, “it was so good to hear how you have stayed close to Jehovah and have endured faithfully.”
Lett referred to Chessa’s rape as a “wicked mistreatment,” but didn’t address any of the urgent points Manion raised. Lett quoted Scripture and bid his old friend well. Thirteen years later, in the 2015 video, Lett’s words were far different. He confidently denounced the abuse allegations that dogged the organization as “apostate-driven lies.”
And as recently as last year, Watchtower leaders said they would continue to rely on the two-witness rule.
Lett did not respond to an e-mailed request for comment. A Watchtower spokesperson declined to participate in an interview, but sent an overview of the organization’s policies, which state that victims and parents have a right to report sexual abuse to law enforcement. “Elders do not criticize anyone who chooses to make such a report,” it reads in part. Another line notes that someone who is guilty of child molestation can remain in a congregation if they’re repentant, but restrictions will be placed on their activities.
Chessa Manion, meanwhile, is trying to pursue the closure she felt she was long ago denied.
Illinois recently eliminated the statute of limitations for child sex abuse survivors to come forward and report crimes they say were committed against them. But the state’s previous statutes — which would apply to her 1994 case, according to a spokeswoman from the Illinois Attorney General’s Office — gave victims up until their 38th birthday to file a report with police. Manion hopes she can have a voice in what happens next, unlike when she was a little girl and an ordinary sleepover turned into a life-altering nightmare.
“People in that religion are taught to remain silent,” she said. “And that’s what needs to change.”

http://www.philly.com/philly/news/jehovahs-witnesses-child-sex-abuse-stephen-lett-chessa-manion-20180620.html?mobi=true

Jonestown and Peoples Temple


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Jun 19, 2018

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Judah, J. From Political Activism to Religious participation, New Religious Movement, 6,1, 11-20.
Judah, J. Hare Krishna and the counterculture, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 414, 1988.
Judah, J. Hare Krishna and the Counterculture, Wiley, 301, 1985.
Judah, J. The Hare Krishna Movement: Its principal beliefs and ability to fulfill members' needs, Religious Movements in Contemporary America, 463-478, 1974.
Kahn, Ric, Rakowsky, Judy. 3 in family slain in Brookline, Authorities say victims were shot execution style, Boston Globe, A1,1, March 18, 1997.
Kahn, Ric, Brelis, Matthew. Troubled Doctor secretly dropped job, Boston Globe, B4,1, March 21, 1997.
Kang, Wi. Influence of Eastern Religions in America,Currents in Theology & Mission, 3, 228-233, August 1, 1976.
Ken, Lewis. Fire Boss Gets His Hands Burnt, New Truth and TV Extra, 4, June 20, 1995.
Kenneth, Cooper. Robots Reenact Hindu Epic, The Seattle Times, A1, June 20, 1995.
Kim, Kyoung. Krishna Consciousness, a history of ISKCON, Thesis, State Univ of NY, 1998.
Kleinberg, Eliot. Prayer Session Planned, Palm Beach Post, B2, November 6, 1998.
Klostermaier, Klaus. Will India's past be America's future: Reflections on the Caitanya movement and its potentials,Journal of Asian and African Studies, 15, 94-103, 1980.
Knott, Kim. A Socio-Religious Study of the Hare Krishna Movement in South Africa, Journal of Religion in Africa, 22, 179-181, 1992.
Knott, Kim. My Sweet Lord:the Hare Krishna Movement, R. Reginald, 112, 1988.
Koch, John. Steve Hassan's war on cults, Boston Globe, E1,3, February 4, 1997.
Kraus, Daniel, Jochen Eckert. Die bedeutung der mitgliedschaft in neuen religonesen, Psychologische Inst. II., 47(1), 1997.
Krishnapada, Swami. The Beggar: meditations and prayers on the Supreme Lord, Hari Nama Press, 1994.
Krochmal, Arnold. Satanism, witchcraft & other religious sects, PPI Publishing, 81, 1990.
Kurtz, Paul. New cults: a critique, Humanist, 34, 4-33, 1974.
Kutty, Ittamveetil, Arthur Froese, Quentin Rae-Grant. Hare Krishna Movement: What Attracts the Western Adolescent?, Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 24,7, 604-609, 1979.
Lalich, Janja. Moon Sisters, Krishna mothers, Rajneesh lovers: women's roles in new religions, Cultic Studies Journal, 14,1, 158-160.
Lansky, David, Pihl R.O. Personality correlates of placebo responsivity and religiosity, Psychological Reports, 39,3, 975-982.
Larson, Bob. Larson's New Book of Cults, Tyndale House, Wheaton, IL, 499, 1989.
Latkin, Carl. New directions in applying psychological theory to the study of new religions, International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 5,3, 177-180.
Lee, Thonnia. Hare Krishnas Ceate Dinner Club, Atlanta Constitution, XE 6,3, November 15, 1990.
Letendre, M.L. The New Monks, Hare Krishna, Ideology and practice of a neooriental movement, Journal: Archives de sciences sociales des religions, 28,55, 1983.
Lewis, Peter. News Watch, New York Times, G3,5.
Lieberman, Paul. Seeking the Soul of the Billion Dollar Butler: The legal morass that haunted Bernard Lafferty, Doris Duke's Heir, Leads to a Journey into the Spirit World, Los Angeles Times, Mag. 9,1, May 18, 1997.
Lieblich, Julia. Hare Krishna Abuse of Children Detailed Participation in Widespread Abuse at Boarding Schools,The Fresno Bee, A16, Octobert 10, 1998.
Lieblich, Julia. Report Details Child Abuse at Hare Krishna Schools, Peoria Journal Star, A2, October 10, 1998.
Lieblich, Julia. Report Details Child Abuse at Hare Krishna Schools, Charleston Gazette, A5, October 10, 1998.
Lienert, Anita. Heritage of family motivates the Fords: Reaching top isn't assured even though their name is on door, Detroit News, A12,1, September 13, 1998.
Lingenfelter, Judith. Hare Krishna in America, Journal of Psychology and Theology, 14,4, 359-360, 1986.
Lipner, J. Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna, Religious Studies, 21, 250-251, 1985.
Lochhaas, Philip. Hare Krishna, ISKCON; Commission on Organizations, the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod, 1977.
Lundegaard, Karen. A Hare Krishna Community: personality and lifestye differences between the male and female members, University of CA, 1986.
Macioti, Maria. New Religious Movements in Italy, New Religious Movement, 8,2, 54-58, 1984.
MacRobert, Alan. The Krishna Question, Boston Magazine.
Magaro, Peter, Miller & Sesto. Personality style in post-traditional religious movements, Psychology: A Quarterly Journal of Human Behavior, 21,3,4, 10-14.
Mansfield, Stephanie. Billionaire's heir out of place,Washington Post, D1,6, April 7, 1993.
Marcus, Amy, Harlan Christi. Legal Beat: Hare Krishnas,Wall Street Journal, B2,5, March 19, 1991.
Martin, Glen. Murderer held in temple knifing, San Francisco Chronicle, A15,5, November 28, 1994.
Martin, Walter. The Kingdom of the Cults, Recording - One Way Library, 1972.
Martinez, Kendra. Hindu Ceremony Starts Work on Temple Hare Krishna group, The Idaho statesman, B2, February 8, 1999.
Mauro, Tony. Free-Speech Case Maps Airports' Role in the Future, USA Today, A6,1, March 26, 1992.
Maxwell, P. A Socio-Religious Study of the Hare Krishna Movement in South Africa, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1, 81-86, 1988.
Mayo, Terry. The Occult, Success Publications, 1975.
McAteer, M.J. West Virginia, Mountain Lama, Washington Post, B9,1, March 6, 1996.
McKinley, Jesse. Karma at Tramps: deafening rock, quiet Krishnas, New York Times, 14CY6,3.
McLellan, Dennis. Krishna youths at a crossroads, Los Angeles Times, A1,1, November 26, 1993.
McNamara, Patrick. Conservative Christian Families & Their Moral World: Some Reflections for Sociologists, Journal:Sociological Analysis, 93-99, 1985.
Mehta, Uday. Modern Godmen in India: A sociological appraisal, Popular Prakashan - Book, 1993.
Melton, J. G. The International Society for Krishna Consciousness of West Virginia, Encyclopedia handbook of cults in America (revised & updated edition).
Miletich, Steve. Nightmarish Memories of Hare Krishna School, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, B1, October 19, 1998.
Miller, Timothy. America's alternative religions, Albany: State Univ of NY Pr, 1995.
Miller, Stephen. Encounter with India: Studies in Neohinduism, Abo akademi, 189, 1990.
Miller, Michael. In Case you were Wondering, Peoria Journal Star, E8, May 1, 1999.
Montana, Carlos. Hindu religious influence in America: TM, Hare Krishna and Divine Light Mission, Andrews University, 41, 1975.
Moody, Jonathan. Ethics and counter culture: an analysis of the ethics of HK, Claremont Graduate School, 1978.
Morace, Robert. Betrayal of the Spirit: My life behind the headlines of the Hare Krishna Movement, Salem Press/Magill Books.
Morgan, M. Pregnancy and Childbrith Beliefs and Practices of American Hare Krishna Devotees Within Transcultural Nursing, Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 5-10.
Mueller, Kristin. Harvesting spiritual variety: Televangelism, the UC, Zen Buddhism and Krishna Consciousness respond to the socio-political tumult of 1970s America, Wheaton College, 1992.
Muneeza, Arjuman. Krishnas Go High Tech Disneyland-Type Robots, Arizona Republic, A18, June 20, 1995.
Munster, Nori. Betrayal of the Spirit: My life behind the headlines of the Hare Krishna Movement, University of IL Press, 1997.
Newberry, Gary. Constitutional Law: ISKCON v. Lee, Journal:OK Law Review, 46,1, 155, 1993.
Niebuhr, Gustav. Hare Krishnas at 30: Real Changes or Just PR?, New York Times, A25,1, May 11, 1996.
Niebuhr, R. Gustav. Legal Beat: Diverse Religions Ally in Free Speech Case, Wall Street Journal, B2,3, June 11, 1992.
Nolan, Bruce. Krishnas tout mature views, Times-Picayune, A14, 3, September 7, 1996.
Nordin, Mazlan. Hoddle Learns the Hard Way to Respect Religious Sensitivities, The New Straits Times, 10, February 12, 1999.
Norman, William. Hare Krishna in America, Sociological Analysis, 49, 196-197, 1988.
Nye, Malory. Hare Krishna and Sanatan Dharm in Britain: The campaign for Bhaktivedanta Manor, Journal of Contemporary Religion, 11,1, 37-56.
Nye, Malory. Minority Religious Groups and Religious Freedom in England, Journal: Church & State, 40,2, 1998.
Obayashi, Hiroshi. Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna, Journal of Ecumenical Studies, 21, 802-803, 1984.
OBrien, Leslie. A Case Study of the Hare Krishna movement: Australia, Practice and Belief, George Allen & Unwin, 134-153, 1983.
O'Driscoll, Patrick. Spending Christmas with the Krishnas,Denver Post, B1,1, December 26, 1994.
Palmer, Susan. Moon Sisters, Krishna mothers, Rajneesh lovers: Women's roles in new religions.
Parinder, Edward. Encountering World Religions: Questions of religious truth, Crossroad, 232, 1987.
Parrinder, G. Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna, Journal: Royal Asiatic Society, N,1, 1986.
Peters, Emmanuelle, Day, McKenna & Orbach. Delusional ideation in religious and psychotic populations, British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38,1, 83-96.
Philbin, Walt. Two Krishnas Killed after Air Mission, Times Picayune, B4,3, September 5, 1992.
Pole, Alex. West meets East: Historic change in the HK movement in India and the US, Thesis - Kent State, 1996.
Poling, Tommy, Keney J.Frank. The Hare Krishna Character Type, Sociological Analysis, 50, 1989 .
Poling, Tommy. The Hare Krishna Character Type: A study of the sensate personality, E. Mellen Press, 184, 1986.
Pounds, Stephen. New Computer Disease Technology Product, Palm Beach Post, D1, August 23, 1996.
Prabhu, Madhvacharya. Krishna: dealings among his devotees, Book, 1992.
Prabhupada, Swami. Back to Godhead, 1944-60 - the pioneer years: a collection of back to Godhead magazines published between 44 and 60., Bhaktivedanta Book Trust.
Prabhupada, Srila. Srila Prabhupada on Guru-Kula, ISKCON of Dallas, 1984.
Prabhupada, Swami. The Journey of Self-Discovery, Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, 1997.
Prabhupada, Swami. The nectar of devotion: the complete science of Bhakti Yoga, Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, 1985.
Prabhupada, Swami. The Science of self-realization, Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, 1994.
Pressman, Corey. Hare Krishnas - US, Thesis Washington State University, 1994.
Price, Joyce. 5 Krishna Temples Ordered Sold, Washington Times, A4,2, March 22, 1990.
Rawlinson, Andrew. The Book of Enlightened Masters: western teachers in eastern traditions, Open Court, 1997.
Ray, John. Perceived deviance, personality and media exposure in Sydney, Media Information Australia, 30, 69-70.
Rice, Mary Ann. From Krishna to Christ: confessions of a spiritual dilettanta, Christian Apologetics, Research and Info Service, 1980.
Richard, Miles, Lina Saigol. D-Day for Building Societies Nationwide, The Guardian Home Page, 1, July 23, 1997.
Richardson, Herbert. New Religions and Mental Health: Understanding the issues, New York: Toronto: Edwin Mellon Press, 1980.
Richardson, James. Clinical and personality assessment of participants in new religions, International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 5,3, 145-170.
Richardson, James. Cult-brainwashing cases and freedom of religion, Journal Church & State, 55-74, 1999.
Richardson, James. Mental health of cult consumers: Legal and scientific controversy, Religion and Mental Health, 233-244.
Richardson, James. Money and power in the new religions, Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Pr., 1988.
Richardson, James. Proselytizing Processes of the new Religions: Moonies, HK, Jesus Movement, Pushing the Faith, 143-154, 1988.
Richardson, James. The Hare Krishna Character Type,Review of Religious Research, 29, 318-319, 1988.
Richardson, James. Two steps forward, one back: Psychiatry, psychology and the rew religions, International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 5,3, 181-185.
Richardson, Peter. Lesmahaglow; Colourful Krishnas: Monks Paint Their Houses Turquoise, Scottish Daily Record, 10, February 23, 1999.
Robbins, Thomas. Krishna and Culture: Cultural exclusivity and the debate over "mind control.", ISKCON Communications Journal, 5,1, 77-84.
Rochford, E. A study of recruitment and transformation processes in the Hare Krishna movement, Univ of CA, 217, 1982.
Rochford, E., Heinlein Jennifer. Child Abuse in the Hare Krishna movement, ISKCON Communications Journal, 5,1, 77-84.
Rochford, E. Dialectical processes in the development of HK; tension, public definition and strategy, Future of new religious movements, 109-122, 1987.
Rochford, E. Factionalism, Group Defection & Schism in the Hare Krishna, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1989.
Rochford, E. Family formation, culture, and change in the Hare Krishna Movement, ISKCON Communications Journal, 5,2, 61-84.
Rochford, E. Family Structure, commitment and involvement in the HK Movement, Social Sciences Abstracts.
Rochford, E. Family Structure, commitment and involvement in the HK Movement, Journal: Sociology of Religion, 56,2, 153, 1995.
Rochford, E. Family Structure, commitment and involvement in the HK Movement, Journal: Sociology of Religion, 56,2, 153-175, 1995.
Rochford, E. Hare Krishna in America, Rutgers University Press, 324, 1985.
Rochford, E. Hare Krishna in America, Eileen Barker, Reviewer, November 1, 1986.
Rochford, E. Hare Krishna in America, Journal:Sociological Analysis, 49,2, 1988.
Rochford, E. Hare Krishna in America: growth, decline and accommodation, America's alternative religions, 215-221, 1995.
Rochford, E. Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna, Sociological Analysis, 46, 196-198, 1985.
Rochford, Purvis & Eastman. New religions, mental health, and social control, Research in the social scientific study of religion: A research annual, 1, 57-82.
Rochford, E. Psychological Distress and Well-being in Hare Krishna, Psychological Reports, August 1, 1987.
Rochford, E. Recruitment Strategies, Ideology and Organization in the Hare Krishna Movement, Social Problems, P 399-410, 1982.
Rochford, E. Recruitment Strategies, Ideology and Organization in the Hare Krishna Movement, Journal:Social Problems, 29,4, 1982.
Rochford, E. Recuitment strategies, ideology and organization in the Hare Krishna movement, Of Gods and Men, Macon, GA: Mercer Univ Pr, 283-302, 1983.
Rochford, E. Religion, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 28,2, 1989.
Rochford, E. The Hare Krishna Character Type, Journal:Sociological Analysis, 50,2, 1989.
Roman, Nancy. Court Hears Hare krishna Suit Against Ban on Airport Activity, Washington Times, A5,1, March 26, 1992.
Rosen, Steven. Passage From India, Munshiram Manoharlal, 126, 1992.
Ross, Michael. Clinical Profiles of Hare Krishna Devotees,American Journal of Psychiatry, 140, P 416, 1983.
Ross, Michael. Mental health and membership in the Hare Krishnas: A case study, Australian Psychologist, 18, 128-129.
Ross, Christopher. The Hare Krishna Type, International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 2,1, 65-67, 1992.
Rothstein, Mikael. Belief Transformation, Aarhus University Press, 1996.
Rourke, Mary. Older and Wiser, LA Times, E1,1, July 1, 1996.
Saliba, John. Dialogue with ISKCON: A Roman Catholic perspective, ISKCON Communications Journal, 4,2, 1-16.
Salvini, Alessandro, Vetrano & Vidotto. Tipizzazione dell'identita e rappresentazione di se.  Una ricerca empirica. Typification of identity and self-representation: An empirical study, Bollettino di Psicologia Applicata, 193-194, 37-49.
Schaffler, Laurie. An inside look at the Hare Krishnas., The New York Times.
Schipper-Peet, G., G. van Tillo. Tussen hemel en aarde, Alphen aan den Rijn, Netherlands, 1976.
Schook, Nancy. Torts - Religious organization's acts of enticing daughter to leave home, Journal of Family Lawv.31/Univ of Louisville, 206-14, 1993.
Schulman, David. Lawsuit Puts Strain on Efland's Hare Krishna Community, The News and Observer, Raleigh, NC, B3, May 19, 1999.
Shabad, Theodore. Hare Krishnas in the USSR, New Religious Movement, 6,2, 48-49.
Sharan, Hari. Prabhupada kripa, Bhakta Kala Kshetra, 1981.
Sheridan, D. Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna, Horizons, 11, 219-220, 1984.
Shinn, Larry. Cult fears and the case of Krishna, Oberlin  Alumni Magazine.
Shinn, Larry. Religious freedom and the psychology of fear: the HK on trial, USA Today, P 90-93, 1990.
Shinn, Larry. The Dark Lord: Cult images and the Hare Krishnas in America, Westminster Press, 204, 1987.
Simon, Stephanie. Krishnas Find Fertile Ground in Russia,Chicago Tribune, 1,3.5, March 8, 1992.
Smith, Aidan. Reviving the Over-45s, The Scotsman, 16, April 28, 1999.
Snow, David, Zurcher, Louis.  Social networks and Social Movements: A Microstructural Approach to differential Recruitment, American Sociological Review, 45, 787-801, 1980.
Snyder, David. Krishna leader led Double Life, Times-Picayune, A1,1, March 31, 1991.
Snyder, George. Residents fear changes at Ocean Center,San Francisco Chronicle, A17,5, September 30, 1996.
Sparks, Judith. The Hare Krishna movement: an interpretation, Nashville, 1976.
Specter, Michael. Krishnas Cast Bread on Roiling Waters in Russia, Grozny Journal, A4,3, December 12, 1995.
Steve, Bard. Religions Gather to hear Message of Hope,The Idaho Statesman, B1, June 19, 1995.
Stones, Christopher. Personal religious orientation and Frankl's will-to-meaning in four religious communities,South African Journal of Psychology, 10,1(2), 50-52.
Stones, Christopher. Socioreligious semantic space in small nonconformist communities: A South African study, Small Group Behavior, 19,1, 109-116.
Stromsten, Amy. The World of Hare Krishna, Society, P 73-77, 1986.
Szimhart, Joseph. Betrayal of the Spirit: My life behind the headlines of the Hare Krishna Movement, Cultic Studies Journal, 14,2, 309-310.
Talan, Jamie. Cults: Sorting Out the Damage, Ann Arbor news, D5, September 15, 1986.
Tannenbaum, Rob. Boy George, Journal: US, 185, 76, 1985.
Trippett, Frank. Troubled karma for the Krishnas, TIME, P20, September , 1986.
Tuck, D. Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 52, 385-386, 1984.
Tucker, Ernest. Child Abuse has ended, leaders say,Chicago Sun-Times, 38, October 25, 1998.
Tucker, Ernest. Krishnas Enter Mainstream, Chicago Sun-Times, 38, October 25, 1998.
Tumminia, Diana. The sacred self: A social psychological study of religious self-identity and the case of Hare Krishna, San Diego State, 116, 1987.
Turner, Ralph, Lewis Killian. Collective behavior (3rd edition), Englewood Cliffs, NJ, xiii, 414.
Uday, Mehta. Modern Godmen in India: A sociological appraisal, Popular Prakashan - Book, 1993.
Ullman, Chana. Cognitive and emotional antecedents of religious conversion, Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 43,1, 183-192.
Ullman, Chana. Psychological well-being among converts in traditional and nontraditional religious groups, Psychiatry, 51,3, 312-322.
Vipramukhya, Swami. How to give a good class on the philosophy of Krishna Consciousness, ISKCON, 1983.
Walker, Thaai. Demons Within, Danger at Large, San Francisco Chronicle, S5,1, February 19, 1995.
Walker, Thaai. Man ruled insane in temple stabbing, San Francisco Chronicle, A22,1, December 2, 1995.
Wallas, Roy. Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna, Update (Rew Rel.) Mvt, 10,1, 62-63, 1986.
Weiss, Arnold, Mendosa, Richard.  Effects of Acculturation into the Hare Krishna Movement on Mental Health and Personality, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1990.
Weiss, Arnold, Comrey, Andrew. Personality and mental health of Hare Krishnas compared with psychiatric outpatients and "normals.", Personality & Individual Differences, 8,5, 721-730.
Weiss, Arnold, Comrey, Andrew. Personality factor structure among Hare Krishnas, Educational & Psychological Measurement, 47,2, 317-328.
Weiss, Arnold, Richard Mendosa. Effects of Acculturation into the Hare Krishna movement on mental health and personality, Journal: Scientific Study of Religion, 29,2, 173, 1990.
Weiss, Arnold, Comrey, Andrew. Personality characteristics of Hare Krishnas, Journal of Personality Assessment, 51,3, 399-413.
Weiss, Arnold. Psychological Distress and Well-being in Hare Krishna, Psychological Reports, 61,1, 23-35.
Whaling, Frank. The Hindu tradition in today's world: Religion in Today's World, 128-173, 1987.
White, Gayle. Krishna Consciousness raised to 30th year of Eastern Ritual, Atlanta Constitution, C3,1, September 6, 1996.
Wilkison, David. Dark Side to Palace, Chicago Tribune, E8,1, April 21, 1994.
Willaime, JP. Sects Among the Youth, Journal: Archives de sciences sociales des religions, 28,55, 1983.
Wilson, Terry. Out of Public Eye, but keeping faith no longer Airport staples, Krishna Followers Still Worship and chant in their temples, Chicago Tribune, 2C7,5, January 24, 1997.
Witham, Larry. 2 Religious Groups Heartened by Court Ruling on Damages, Washington Times, B6,5, March 22, 1991.
Witham, Larry. Court Cases Test Balance Between Church and State, Washington Times, B6,1, April 20, 1990.
Wright, Stuart. A sociological study of defection from controversial new religious movements, Univ of Connecticut, 272, 1983.
Wright, Stuart. Dyadic Intimacy & Social Control in Three Cult Movements, Sociological Analysis, 1986.
Wright, Stuart, Piper, Elizabeth. Families and cults: Familial factors related to youth leaving or remaining in deviant religious groups, Journal of Marriage & The Family, 48,1, 15-25.
Wright, Stuart. Leaving cults: the dynamics of defection, Society for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1987.
Wright, Stuart. Reconceptualizing Cult Coercion and Withdrawal: A Comparative Analysis of Divorce and Apostasy, Social Forces Journal, 125-145, 1991.
Yakos, Marvin. The roaring Lion of the East: An inside view of the Hare Krishna Movement, Word Aflame Press, 264, 1988.
Yamamoto, J. Hare Krishna, Guide to cults and new religions Downers Grove IL: Intervarsity Press, 91-102, 1983.
Yamamoto, Isamu. Hare Krishna, Guide to cults and new religions Downers Grove IL: Intervarsity Press, 91-102, 1983.
Zaidmandvir, N., Sharot, S. The Response of Israeli Society to New Religious Movements: ISKCON & Teshuvah, Journal: Scientific Study of Religion, 31,3, 279-295, 1992.
Zaidman-Dvir, Nurit. When the Deities are asleep: processes of change in the HK Temple, Thesis Temple University, 1994.
Zaretsky, Irving, Mark P. Leone. Religious Movements in Contemporary America, Princeton: Princeton Univ Pr, 1974.
A guide to cults and new religions, InterVarsity Press, 215, 1983.
A request to the media - please don't lump us in, ISKCON, Office of Public Affairs, 1980.




Items Without Authors:  

About Krishna Consciousness, Palm beach Post, E1, August 8, 1996.
Airport Proselytizers Return, with New Tack, Wall Street Journal, B1,2, March 20, 1990.
Annual Chariot Festival, The new Straits Times, 11, January 2, 1999.
Celebrating Krishna's Appearance, The New Straits Times, 17, August 30, 1997.
Charter School Applicant Rejected, St. Petersburg Times, B5, May 7, 1999.
Child Abuse at Krishna Boarding Schools is Detailed, Star-Tribune of the Twin Cities, A11, October 10, 1998.
Christian Groups Join Effort to Upset Judgment against Krishnas, Los Angeles Times, F15,4, April 21, 1990.
Correction, Washington Post, A3,6, May 30, 1990.
Court considers animal sacrifice, airport witnessing, Christianity Today, P.46-47, April 27, 1992.
Cult Admits Child Abuse, Evening Mail; Mirror, 3, October 10, 1998.
Divine passions: The social construction of emotion in India, University of CA, 312, 1990.
Don't judge all Muslims by actions of terrorist sect, Denver Post, B9,1, September 30, 1993.
Don't Let Airports Bar the First Amendment, USA Today, A12,1, March 26, 1992.
Ex-Hare Kirshna Leader Gets 20-year sentence, Associated Press, A23,1, August 29, 1996.
Ex-Hare Krishna Leader Gets 20 year sentence, New York Times, A23,1, August 29, 1996.
Former head of BIL Investment Company Refused Bail in Sydney Court, Waikato Times, 8, August 5, 1997.
Group to Hand Out Free Food, Life & Times, 2, October 17, 1997.
Hare Krishna, World Wide Web link: www.iskcon.org/hkindex/.
Hare Krishna, World Wide Web link: www.geopages.com/Tokyo/1148/.
Hare Krishna Festival Today, The New Straits Times, 2, August 28, 1997.
Hare Krishna Gets 30, New York Times, A16,4, June 21, 1991.
Hare Krishna groups in California are under intense police scrutiny following disclosures that they have been stockpiling weapons, Christianity Today, 24, 66, July , 1980.
Hare Krishna leader Tied to Murder Plot, Washington Post, D1,2, May 26, 1990.
 parents were often unaware of the abuse because they were traveling and soliciting donations for their guru's books, in airports and on the street, leaving their children in the care of HK monks and young devotees who had no training in educating children and often resented the task, the report says. Hare Krishna Reveals Abuse of Members' Children; Sect's boarding schools lacked competent staffs, Baltimore Sun, A5, October 9, 1998.
Hare Krishna Troubles, The Christian Century, P 738, August 17, 1983.
Hare Krishna World, Hare Krishna Movement, 1997.
Hare Krishna: The Complete Picture, World Wide Web link: www.shamantaka.org.
Hare Krishnas Admit Widespread Abuse of Children, Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, 3, October 10, 1998.
Hare Krishnas Celebrate legalization in Moscow, Atlanta Constitution, E1,5, August 13, 1990.
Hare Krishnas denied charter school, Florida Times-Union, A1, May 17, 1999.
Hare Krishnas Fight Judgment, Washington Post, B6,2, March 10, 1990.
Heffron v ISKCON.
Heffron v. iskcon, Houston law Review, 325-38, 1982.
,US Supreme Court. Heffron, Secretary & manager of the Minn. State Agricultural Society Board of Managers, et al v. ISKCON, S.N., 1981.
His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, World Wide Web link: www.webcom.com/~ara/col/cooks/BIO/prab.html.
 International Society for Krishna Consciousness, Garland Publ, NY, 1990.
Is There Hope for the Court, Denver Post, B6,1, March 26, 1992.
US Supreme Court. ISKCON vs. Lee, S.N., 1992.
Kremlin Oks Krishnas, The Providence Journal, D7, November 7, 1998.
Krishna Consciousness and others, Institute for  Vaishnave, 1986.
Krishna Consciousness in the West, Buckness University Press, 295, 1989.
Krishna Consciousness is the Genuine Indian Culture, Gopal Krishna Das Adhikari, 198?.
Krishna Journal Details Sex Abuse, Times Union - Albany, NY, A3, October 9, 1998.
Krishnas Admit Abuse at US, India Boarding Schools, The Palm Beach Post, A3, October 9, 1998.
Krishnas Confirm Pattern of Abuse, Cincinnati Enquirer, A3, October 10, 1998.
Krishnas Confirm Students' Abuse, Florida Times-Union, A11, October 10, 1998.
Krishnas Open Temple in India, Rocky Mountain News, A28, June 20, 1995.
Krishnas Reveal Details of Child Abuse, Salt Lake Tribune, C1, October 10, 1998.
Krishnas Say Fire is Type of Harassment, Saturday State Times/Leetown, MS, BS5, July 12, 1997.
Labour of Love for spiritual Guru, The New Straits Times, 3, August 11, 1997.
Misguiding Lights?, Beacon Hill Press, 132, 1991.
More Free Meals for Poor & Needy, Main/Lifestyle, 2, October 4, 1997.
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