Feb 23, 2016

Scientology for Islamists What makes the "Islamic state" to the sect.

Sects aim to authoritarian systems in which they have total control over the members.
Sects aim to authoritarian systems in which they have total control over the members.

Again and again emphasize politicians like US President Barack Obama and his Secretary of State John Kerry that the "Islamic State" (IS) is a sect. But they do not say why and what this means - for the Protection of the Constitution, the affected families and also for those who join him. Because what makes sects so dangerous is their belief, but the way in which they recruit their members do not necessarily treat, and use.

Religions and sects do not differ in theology (not for nothing that resemble the rhetoric of the IS and the Saudi clerics), but in the design of the relationship with its members. While religions permit a minimum level of discussion and interpretation, puts into sects only the leadership, the universal spiritual truth firmly. While religions punish a breach of the principles or only mild, brutal punishments inflicted and executed in sects. The outlet of a religious community is not welcome, but it is possible. In sects the exit request can lead to persecution and death. (Although Islam prescribes the death penalty for apostasy, it is actually implemented in very few Muslim countries; in the past 20 years only two Muslims have been executed for this purpose, in 1994 in Iran and 2014 in Sudan ). The reason for these measures is simple: While religions have the welfare of the faithful to the goal, strive sects authoritarian systems in which they have total control over the members. To this end, they try to get their members to isolate as much as possible of their original social environment and to replace these bonds through contacts with the sect. The sect gives life structure and safety, it makes predictable by clear rules. The sect gives the member a sense of belonging and gives meaning to his life.

With its sparkling methods of IS has success especially among Europeans.

Thus, the IS has especially among Europeans success, because particularly in these clients it applies its sparkling methods. Iraqis and Syrians within its territory, however, are lured with more financial benefits. Like other sects also examined the IS new members based on a victim profile: A typical candidate for a sect is neither "crazy" nor live in absolute poverty. Two thirds are strengthened emotionally, only one-third suffer from depressive disorders. However, you will find both typical cult members as well as IS-supporters a psychological loss profile, which can take several forms: divorce, job loss, relocation, changes in the circle of friends and a general feeling of meaninglessness of life. That is why the profile of European IS-trailers are so heterogeneous: Some come from devout households, others from secular families; almost a quarter are converts; they come from wealthy and poor families are married or single. The IS is good to recognize this life gap and to fill. A good recruiter recognizes that he must apply methods to give the candidate the feeling that the IS can fill this gap. Depending on the profile of potential members speak more on emotional, intellectual, action-oriented or ideological rhetoric.

If the IS-trailers only once in Syria, the trap snaps.

If the IS-trailers only once in Syria, the trap snaps. Far from family and friends, in a war zone and surrounded by a foreign culture, the member is delivered from now on completely the IS. The IS handles all social needs and drives a wedge between the individual and his place of origin: on the one hand by force, the other by the apocalyptic rhetoric. The extreme violence, such as the cutting off of heads, has inter alia the function of the member to make it difficult to return to its original society - because there are these forms of violence and those who perpetrate it, rejected. The member is thus part of an exclusive community. The same function has the apocalyptic rhetoric. Not for nothing utilize sects like the IS, but also the Heaven's Gate group or the Solar Temple, the idea of ​​approaching doomsday to elicit a strong group feeling. Finally, the member belongs therefore to a select group, which alone has information about the imminent end. Even suicide fits into this logic: As important as the group is the identity of the individual, it is also worthwhile to die for it.

Overall, membership, be it in the IS or in a cult, give the member initially positive feelings. The search for meaning is finished, a strong team spirit covers the emotional and social needs. This is exactly what the Anwerbungsvideos of IS are aimed: Young, healthy and attractive men are not only shown in the fight, but also in cheerful camaraderie. The often harsh living conditions in Syria and Iraq do not change anything. Only if not fulfill the hopes that has set in the IS the member, the discharge is contemplated. is However, the longer one is in the grip of the organization, the more difficult this is: Who is more than a year a member, has to want little chance escape, or be able to, because the return to the origin of society is difficult. Exactly why are enforced withdrawals (such as kidnapping) usually not effective.

Who wants to weaken the appeal of IS on Europeans, must prevent people go to Syria.

Who wants to weaken the appeal of IS on Europeans, must prevent in the first place that people ever go after Syria, because once there, the process is hardly reverse. Bans in Europe and entry bans in Turkey are first steps. A radicalization can also be averted even in the early stages, especially by the families. Therefore, Germany, France and the Netherlands have set up a hotline to which these families can call. But because the recruiters the future member often applying to conceal his new ideas to the family, the recruitment is often not noticed. Enhanced monitoring of typical recruitment forums such as Facebook or Twitter, but also mosques, may be more effective.

But the attraction of the IS is not just intrinsic psychological elements. It is also his narrative of success, the resistance, the revolution which just him - as opposed to about Al Qaeda - currently makes them particularly attractive. For individuals join preference groups that already have many members to thereby enhance their own choice. Therefore, the strategy of IS is also to constantly boast new successes - in Iraq, Syria and Europe. to defeat him militarily, should its appeal - at least to some extent - reduce. But this does not solve the problem of returnees: Thousands of IS members have now returned to Europe, in all probability, not because they have broken with his ideas. to monitor or where the exit will is there to care for psychologically, much more work for European services than previously thought.

From: Florence Gaub 
Published on 02.22.2016


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